Introduction to Agricultural Science

February 27, 2022 Category :Agriculture Off

Agricultural science is the study of the practices involved in the field of agriculture. Agricultural science and agriculture, although related to each other, are essentially very different from one another. Agriculture is the art of growing plants, fruits and vegetables for human consumption. Agricultural science, on the other hand, deals with research, improvement and development in techniques of production like irrigation management, pest control etc. It includes the processes necessary for improving the quality and quantity of agricultural products.

Agricultural science deals with transforming the primary products to finished, consumption-ready products. It also involves the prevention and correction of adverse factors hampering productivity. It has been referred to as a local science because of its strong relation to the local areas. It is often considered to be a science dealing with eco-regions as it depends largely on climate and properties of soil in a particular area. These factors vary largely from one place to another. Many individuals are of the opinion that agricultural science depends on the local weather and local soil characteristics, so specific crops need to be studied locally.

History

The path breaking work of Gregor Mendel in the field of agriculture made its study very popular around the world. However, in the modern era the chemical fertilizer industries in Germany revolutionized the field of agriculture in the eighteenth century. In USA, a revolution in agricultural science began with the passing of the Hatch Act in 1887. The driving force behind the Hatch Act was the need of the nation to empower the farmers so that they could improve productivity and feed the growing population. Since the early nineteen sixties, agriculture has gained a lot of importance in developing and developed countries.

This process was known as the Green Revolution and was linked to the process of selecting and substantially improving crops for maximum productivity. Even today, a lot of research is being conducted in this field of study, which has led to the emergence of various new areas of study like waste treatment, pest management, agricultural philosophy and others that focus essentially on food production. With the growth in world population, agricultural science is the one science which will play an important role in ensuring the continuity of the human race.

Agricultural Science Degree

Agricultural science is a multi-dimensional approach to understanding and practice of various economic, social and natural sciences that are involved in agriculture. Students who graduate in the field of agricultural science have a fair understanding of the relationship between farmers, ecosystems and end-consumers through the intensive study of economics, animal husbandry, botany and everything else which is involved in the field of farming and food production. Since more than half the population of the world is indirectly or directly involved in agriculture and production of food, degrees in agricultural science provide a broad spectrum of career choices ranging from education to agronomy.

The degree consists of a curriculum that prepares the students for entry level jobs in this field. They are trained in animal and plant biology, horticulture, animal agriculture, soil science, sustaining agriculture, basic chemistry, production of food and the economics of agricultural production. These varied subjects ensure that the student is well prepared for any challenge that he or she might come across in this field.

Degree

The degree courses focus on an intensive and focused study of specialties in agriculture. The classes include advanced level chemistry, economics, management of water, computer application required for management of agriculture, environmental design, biological engineering, application of pesticides and insecticides, education and biotechnology etc. The degree also requires extensive laboratory and field work. The student can then opt for specialization courses in any of these subjects studied earlier. They can go for either online or campus based degrees in agricultural science.

Options

Since agricultural science revolves around field and laboratory work, students cannot opt for master degrees in this field of study, through online education. However, many online schools offer advanced courses in various fields like environmental policies, environmental studies and also environmental management. These three fields are very important in the study and management of food production. The courses are very similar to that of agricultural science. There are many private and state universities all over the world which offer basic and advanced level courses online.

Many universities in the US are known for offering various degree and diploma courses in this field. In the last few decades, universities in India and Australia have emerged as heavyweights in this particular field of study by undertaking revolutionary research and successfully implementing techniques in the various areas of production in agriculture. Hence, agricultural science students are highly in demand, in countries around the world.

Diploma Courses

It is not always possible for an individual to pursue full time degree courses, due to lack of time and money. In such cases, the individuals can opt for diploma courses. Any student who has completed high school education can apply for these diploma courses. Such diploma courses are also available in the field of agriculture. The courses are designed in such a way that they provide the students with a thorough introduction to horticulture, animal husbandry and agriculture. Agricultural diploma courses are highly recommended for students who want to pursue a career in Horticultural management or Management of Agricultural Farms.

There are many types of diploma courses like Basic Diploma, Post Graduate Diploma and Advanced Diploma courses. These courses offer the students with the knowledge of different aspects of agricultural science. These courses also cover some elementary subjects like human resource, physical and financial management.

Create a Sense of Calm With Architecture and Interior Design Tips

January 17, 2022 Category :Architecture and Interior Design Off

We all like our own space; somewhere we can sit and relax after a hard day at the office or looking after the kids. So if you are looking for architecture and interior design ideas, why not go about creating a sense of calm and peace by introducing some simple Feng Shui into your home and life?

What Is Feng Shui?

Basically Feng Shui is a concept that can be used for architecture and interior design and it means having a better understanding of how to use space and use it to bring about a feeling of calm.

This is done by getting the correct balance. In interior design this could be the placing of furniture and items in the room and it can be as simple or as complex as you want. When you put items in the room in certain locations you can change the energy flow of the room. So here are some simple ideas to make your home calmer.

Introduce Water into Your Home

One of the main principles of Feng Shui focuses on water used in the home and by this we don’t mean you have to leave your taps running. One of the easiest ways of bringing water into the home through interior design is with an interior desktop fountain. The flowing water is said to help in regards to the energy flow and its soft tinkling is relaxing to listen to.

Let Plenty of Natural Light and Air into the Home

Allowing plenty of natural light and air to flow around the building and rooms is a great way of ensuring that energy in the rooms doesn’t go stale. Therefore during the interior design process you should take windows into account.

Don’t put heavy curtains up to them, instead why not consider blinds that can be pulled up or opened during the day and closed at night. Other options include having light weight curtains or netting up to the windows, which again should remain open as much as possible. Sheer voile panels are also a great option. It goes without saying that windows should be left open whenever possible to allow fresh air to circulate the room.

How To Create A Brand – Build Your Brand Development Strategy

December 11, 2021 Category :Branding Off

How To Create A Brand?

There are four effective steps in brand development strategy to create a brand:

Choose the brand name and logo
Establish the brand in the minds of customers
Brand Sponsorship
Develop the brand

What Is Brand Equity?

How to create a Brand is no way different from founding your business. It takes time. Gradually you can create Brand Equity. Brand equity is the differential effect when consumers react more favorably to a brand than to a generic or unbranded version of the same product. Whenever we think of buying a smartphone the very first name strikes us is – the iPhone. Ask why? It’s because of comfort and authenticity delivered by iPhone to its users.

Apple throughout their years of research and experience has created a state in our mind of ultimate luxury and comfortability in using their products. There may be a few more similar products of others in line with Apple iPhone and may be superior to that, but the identity of iPhone gives it the edge over others- no matter what the price tag is. This edge is the Brand Equity.

4 Steps of Brand Development Strategy

1. Choose the Brand Name and select the Logo:

While building a brand development strategy name plays a vital role. A good name and style can add positives to a product’s success. It is the most difficult task to start with. Simplicity is the first step. The name should be easy to pronounce, recognize and remember. Moreover, it should suggest something about the product’s benefits and qualities.

Names like Google, Nike, Facebook, Apple, KFC etc. are among the most established brands all over the world. Interesting fact about those names is that they are easily translatable in different languages around the world. Hence the meaning of a particular word should not be something which indicates bad, wrong or negative.

Again the name should be extendable to cover up multiple product lines. For example, Amazon.com started its business with bookselling and now has been extended to multiple product categories.

Once chosen, the brand name should also be protected. Means in many instances brand names were eventually mixed up with the product category and people cannot differentiate the brand identity from the product category.

For example, Xerox is a company builds copier machines, but doing a photocopy is often termed as doing xerox.’Xerox’ is to be pronounced as a noun and not as a verb. Many people find it hard to distinguish between the product and the service which ultimately hampers the brand name of the Company.

2. Establishing the brand in the minds of customers:

An interesting saying by a marketer- Products are created in the factory, but brands are created in the mind. This can be done in multiple ways- At the basic level, it starts with introducing the target customers the product and its distinguishing characteristics.

Let’s took the example of Amazon’s Kindle- e-book reader. Amazon targets its customers, saying that it’s an e-book reader having a distinguished feature of reading books in a virtual format. In this stage, they are simply introduced with the product and has a very low level of impact.

The more effective way a brand can be positioned by associating its name with desirable benefits. Thus, Kindle is beyond an e-book reader- it is lightweight, on the go dictionary, stores thousands of books which are easy to search, no glare and zero distractions.

The strongest brands go beyond establishing features and benefits in customers’ mind and positions itself on strong values and beliefs, rooted to a deep emotional bonding. Like reading books in Kindle is an absolute pleasure and presents itself as booklover’s new best friend. When placing a brand in human mind, the marketer should establish a mission for the brand and a vision of what the brand must be and do.

3. Brand Sponsorship:

Brand sponsorship can be of three types:

Private Brand sponsorship
Licensed Brand sponsorship
Co-branding

Private Brand Sponsorship:

Lots of advertisements and social marketing strategies work behind the big brands to emerge and are termed as National brands. But for smaller Companies, it may not always be possible to endorse brands with a huge out of pocket expenses. In those scenarios, brand sponsorship is very important. As against National or Manufacture’s brands, there are Store brands. In recent decades store brands are gaining more from the market. Here’s why?

Big shopping malls like Big Bazaar, Walmart resale products at significant discount rates especially the generic or no-name brands. They endorse the products citing its advantages or putting side by side comparison with the top brands. The association of the big resellers with less known products works as an aid in uplifting the brand value of the product once termed as ‘no-name’.

Private brand sponsorship is also followed in online shopping too. As we can see small or lesser known mobile manufacturers are recently tying up with Amazon to sell their phones. In fact, this strategy is working great as the ‘no-name’ brands are getting the support of the big brand stores be it online or offline.

Licensed Brand Sponsorship:

In this brand sponsorship, some companies buy the names and symbols of other manufacturers or creators with a fee and endorse its products under such brand name. This is a common thing in the fashion industry like Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger, Gucci, Armani etc., where the Companies are using the names and initials of well-known fashion innovator. This type of branding turns out as an added fillip but with a pinch in the pocket.

Co-Branding:

Under such a brand sponsorship strategy, to established brand names of different companies are used on the same product. Because each brand dominates in a different category, the combined brands create broader consumer appeal and greater brand equity.

For example, Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance where Bajaj is a dominant player in the automobile sector and Allianz is a German financial service major. Now since Bajaj wants an entry in the insurance sector and Allianz wants an entry in the Indian market, they jointly made a brand ‘Bajaj-Allianz’ to reap the fruits of the Indian insurance market.

Co-branding carries some limitations too. Such relationships usually involve complex legal contracts and licenses. Co-branding partners must carefully coordinate their advertising, sales promotion, and other marketing efforts. The onus lies on both the partners to carry the co-brand with trust and dignity.

4. Developing Brands:

To augment the brand equity it is very important to prepare a brand development strategy incommensurate with changing business scenarios. There is no hard and fast rule to dictate over.

Line extensions:

Brands name of a product can be extended to an existing line of products to accredit new forms, colors, sizes, ingredients or flavors of an existing product. However, line extensions involve some risks. An overextended brand name might cause consumer confusion or loss some of its specific meaning.

Brand extensions:

It happens when a current brand name is extended to a new or modified product in a new category. For example, NestlĂ©’s popular brand of noodles Maagi has been extended to its tomato ketchup, pasta, soup etc. A brand extension gives a new product instant recognition and faster acceptance. But one should be careful while extending brand as it may confuse the image of the main brand.

Multi-Brands:

Multibranding offers a way to establish different features that appeal to different customer segments, lock up more reseller shelf space and capture a larger market share.

For example, a reputed company sells multiple varieties of soft drinks under different brand names. These brands are fighting each other to reign the market and as a result, they individually may have a smaller share of a pie, but as a whole, the Company is dominating the soft drink market. The major drawback here is the individual brands obtain only a small market share and may not be very profitable.

Travel Agents Can Help With Your Business Travel

November 21, 2021 Category :Business Travel Off

Business travelers are constantly on the move. They always have to be in front of time in order to built contracts with other businesses and other colleagues or executives. Still, if an individual is a business person and requires an alteration in his plans, why not attempt to merge business with relaxation? To make this possible, you will need to get in touch with a travel agent.

You should contact a travel agent for planning a business trip that is void of any hassles. Make sure that business travelers will get all important information from the travel agency. They should also give them detailed information regarding business travel so that your requirements will be satisfied while traveling.

Making contact with a travel agent will ensure that you have an enjoyable business trip since you can work on your own agenda so that you can have a great time while traveling on business. Gone are the days when a person has no time for enjoyment while on a business trip. People used to be more engaged in conferences and meetings which would keep him from going on any outings. Working with a travel agent can help you put breaks in between your hectic business schedule. For example, if a person has a free afternoon, their agent can suggest an area that they must see in the city which you would take pleasure in.

Working with a travel agent also saves time as they can arrange for special car service. Having a car is a big benefit for business travelers who have to go from one place to another, as well as for those who do not want to go through the disturbance of using public transportation or taxi cabs. If an individual has his own car and driver, then it is easy for them to manage business more capably. However, for those who wish to rent a vehicle, they can ask their travel agent to organize this for them. Businessmen can also ask for vehicles with GPS systems so that they will not get lost. These can all be prearranged by travel agents for their ease and satisfaction.

Also, if people are bored with the common room service or hotel restaurant food, they can ask their agent for ideas regarding the best place to have dinner and a few drinks in the city where they plan to visit. If you are unhappy with the customary business hotels where you would generally stay, travel agents can find other lodgings that are as classy but would have a different atmosphere.

Receiving help from a travel agent is a wise choice that every businessman should look into, mostly if they would like to inject some enthusiasm into their customary business tours. And it’s rightly said that, all work and no play makes you a dull person!

Hope for the Hopeless – Depression and Eating Disorders

October 18, 2021 Category :Depression Off

Approximately 80% of all severe cases involving anorexia or bulimia have a coexisting major depression diagnosis. Depression is a very painful and all consuming disorder in and of itself. However, in combination with an eating disorder, depression is beyond devastating and is often masked within the eating disorder itself. Depression in eating disorder clients looks different than it does in clients who have mood disorder alone. One way to describe how depression looks in someone who is suffering with an eating disorder is: hidden misery. For eating disorder clients, depression takes on a heightened quality of hopelessness and self-hatred, and becomes an expression of their identity, not a list of unpleasant symptoms. The depression becomes intertwined with the manifestations of the eating disorder, and because of this interwoven quality, the depressive symptoms are often not clearly distinguishable from the eating disorder. One purpose of this article is to highlight some of the distinctions and differences in how depression manifests itself in someone suffering with anorexia or bulimia. Another purpose is to provide suggestions that will begin to foster hope for these hopeless clients within the therapy setting.

When dealing with eating disorder cases, it is important to understand that if major depression is present, it is most likely present at two levels. First, it will be evident in a history of chronic, low level, dysthymic depression, and secondly, there will be symptoms consistent with one or more prolonged episodes of acute major depressive disorder. The intensity and acuteness of the depression is not always immediately recognizable in how the client is manifesting their eating disorder. Clinical history taking will reveal chronic discouragement, feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, appetite disturbance, sleep disturbance, low energy, fatigue, concentration troubles, difficulty making decisions, and a general feeling of unhappiness and vague hopelessness. Since most eating disorder clients do not seek treatment for many years, it is not uncommon for this kind of chronic dysthymic depression to have been in their lives anywhere from two to eight years. Clinical history will also reveal that as the eating disorder escalated or became more severe in its intensity, there is a concurrent history of intense symptoms of major depression. Oftentimes, recurrent episodes of major depression are seen in those with longstanding eating disorders. In simple words, eating disorder clients have been discouraged for a long time, they have not felt good about themselves for a long time, they have felt hopeless for a long time, and they have felt acute periods of depression in which life became much worse and more difficult for them.

Unique Characteristics
One of the most unique characteristics of depression in someone who is suffering with an eating disorder is an intense and high level of self-hatred and self-contempt. This may be because those who have these major depressive episodes in conjunction with an eating disorder have a much more personally negative and identity-based meaning attached to the depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms say something about who the person is at a core level as a human being. They are much more than simply descriptive of what the individual is experiencing or suffering from at that time in their life. For many women with eating disorders, the depression is broad evidence of their unacceptability and shame, and a daily proof of the deep level of “flawed-ness” that they believe about themselves. The intensity of the depression is magnified or amplified by this extreme perceptual twist of the cognitive distortion of personalization and all-or-nothing thinking. A second symptom of major depression shown to be different in those who suffer with severe eating disorders is that their sense of hopelessness and despair goes way beyond “depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day.” The sense of hopelessness is often an expression of how void and empty they feel about who they are, about their lives, and about their futures. Up until the eating disorder has been stabilized, all of that hopelessness has been converted into an addictive attempt to feel in control or to avoid pain through the obsessive acting out of the anorexia or bulimia.

Thirdly, this hopelessness can be played out in recurrent thoughts of death, pervasive suicidal ideation, and suicidal gesturing which many clients with severe anorexia and bulimia can have in a more entrenched and ever-present fashion than clients who have the mood disorder alone. The quality of this wanting to die or dying is tied to a much more personal sense of self-disdain and identity rejection (get rid of me) than just wanting to escape life difficulties. Fourth, the feelings of worthlessness or inadequacy are unique with eating disorders because it goes beyond these feelings. It is an identity issue accompanied by feelings of uselessness, futility, and nothingness that occur without the distraction and obsession of the eating disorder.

A fifth, distinct factor in the depression of those with eating disorders is that their excessive and inappropriate guilt is tied more to emotional caretaking issues and a sense of powerlessness or helplessness than what may typically be seen in those who are suffering with major depression. Their painful self-preoccupation is often in response to their inability to make things different or better in their relationships with significant others.

A sixth factor that masks depression in an eating disorder client is the all consuming nature of anorexia and bulimia. There is often a display of high energy associated with the obsessive ruminations, compulsivity, acting out, and the highs and lows in the cycle of an eating disorder. When the eating disorder is taken away and the individual is no longer in a place or position to act it out, then the depression comes flooding in, in painful and evident ways.

Compassion for the Hopelessness
The reality of working with people who are suffering in the throws of depression and an eating disorder is that it is difficult not to feel hopeless for their hopelessness. Their hopelessness is extremely painful. It is an inner torture and misery, and it is encompassed by intense feelings of self-hatred and self contempt. For many, their emotional salvation was going to be the eating disorder. It was going to be thinness, physical beauty, or social acceptability. Many come to feel that they have even failed at the eating disorder and have lost the identity they had in the eating disorder. Hence, the hopelessness goes beyond hopeless, because not only is there nothing good in their lives, there is nothing good in them. Not only is there no hope for the future, there is nothing hopeful at the moment but breathing in and out the despair they feel. It feels to them like the suffering will last forever. Therapists who work with eating disorders need to be prepared for the flood of depression that pours out once the eating disorder symptoms and patterns have been stabilized or limited to some degree.

It is my personal observation that clinicians need to change what they emphasize in treating depression in those engaging in recovery from eating disorders compared with those for whom depression is the primary and most significant disorder. Therapists need to find ways to foster hope for the hopeless, much more so for someone with an eating disorder because oftentimes these clients refuse comfort. They refuse solace. They refuse support. They refuse love. They refuse encouragement. They refuse to do the things that would be most helpful in lifting them out of the depression because of their intense inner self-hatred.

For the therapist, the pain that fills the room is tangible. Clients are often full of sorrow and anger for who they are, which takes the symptoms of depression to a deeper level of despair. In working with eating-disordered clients with this level of depression, it is important for the therapist to show a deep sense of respect, appreciation, and love for those who feel so badly about themselves and who are suffering so keenly in all aspects of their lives. In spite of all the suffering, these people are still able to reach out to others with love and kindness and function at high levels of academic and work performance. They are still able to be wonderful employers, employees, and students, but they are not able to find any joy in themselves, or in their lives. These clients tend to carry on in life with hidden misery, and a therapist’s compassion and respect for this level of determination and perseverance provides a context for hope. As therapists it is important that a sense of love and compassion grows and is evident in these times when the client feels nothing but hopeless and stuck.

Separating Depression from Self-hatred
One of the key components of working with the depression aspects of an eating disorder is to begin to separate the depression from the self-hatred. It is important to help the client understand the difference between shame and self-hatred. Shame is the false sense of self which leads someone to believe and feel that they are unacceptable, flawed, defective, and bad, an inner sense that something is wrong with their “being.” They feel unacceptable to the world and to themselves, and feel that somehow they are lacking whatever it is they need to “be enough.” Self-hatred is the acting out of that shame within and outside of the person. The self-hatred can be acted out in the negative mind of the eating disorder, that relentless circle of selfcriticism, self-contempt, and negativity that is a common factor in all who suffer with eating disorders. The shame can be acted out through self-punishment, self-abandonment, emotional denial, avoidance, minimization, self-harm, self-mutilation, and through impulsive and addictive behaviors both within and outside of the eating disorder. Self-hatred is the ongoing gathering of evidence within the client’s own mind that they are broken, and unacceptable. In time, the eating disorder becomes their main evidence that there is something wrong with them and that they are unacceptable. And so, in a sense, the eating disorder is their friend and their enemy. It is a source of comfort and it is the reason they will not be comforted, and until they can achieve perfection in the mind-set of an eating disorder, they have great cause to hate themselves for who they are and who they are not.

All of these examples of self-hatred become intertwined with the symptoms and the expression of the depression, and so it becomes important in therapy to help the client to separate what depression is and what self-hatred is for them. It has been my experience that focusing on the aspects of shame and self-hatred has been more helpful to those who have eating disorders than focusing only on the depression itself. The self-hatred amplifies the intensity and the quality of the depressive symptoms. By focusing on the self-hatred aspects we begin turning the volume down on how the depressive symptoms manifest themselves with the client.

I have found that emphasizing the separation of self-hatred from the depression and its symptoms, and then beginning to change and soften the expressions of self-hatred fosters hope and generates hopefulness. Clients begin to see and sense that maybe the problem is not entirely who they are. Some hope comes from knowing that the feelings and the sense of self they have may not be accurate and true. They may recognize that some of what they have done forever and what has felt very much a part of their identity is really a chosen and acted out pattern of self-hatred. Somewhere in this separation of self hatred and depression they begin to feel hope in themselves, hope in letting go of pain, and hope in having their life feel, look, and be different.

Another reason for the emphasis on self-hatred is to help clients begin to recognize and challenge the unique quality of the all-ornothing thinking that leads them to filter everything about their lives in this most negative, personal, and self-contemptuous way. Hope is generated by learning that everything does not say something bad about who they are, that normal life experiences are not evidence that there is something wrong with them, and that negative feelings do not prove as true, what they have always felt about themselves. The unique perfectionism inherent in this all-or-nothing thinking allows no room for anything but perfection in any area of thought, feeling, or behavior. To be able to let go of the self-hatred filter and begin to see many of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors they experience every day as typical, usual, and acceptable begins to foster hope, more importantly the kind of hope that is not tied to the false hopes of the eating disorder itself. Part of what has made the eating disorder so powerful is that clients put all of their hope in the eating disorder itself. Eating disorders are hopeless because after clients have done everything in their power to live them perfectly, they have only brought misery, despair, dysfunction, and more hopelessness. The attempt to generate hope through anorexia and bulimia has failed. By focusing on the self-hatred, they begin to separate their eating disorder from themselves. They also begin to separate the eating disorder from their source of hope. They begin to recognize that hope is within themselves and hope is within reach if they will soften how they view themselves and if they will change how they treat themselves internally and externally. Separating the depression from the self-hatred can help clients see the eating disorder for what it really is, with all its lies and consequences, and can help them begin to see who they are in a more honest and accurate way.

Renaming the Depression
I have also found it helpful in working with this clientele to rename or re-frame the depression and its symptoms within some kind of specific pain they are experiencing. I emphasize the pain aspects because part of what makes the depression so painful for those with eating disorders is the internalization of hopelessness. We can remove the global, ambiguous, and future sense of the depression, and break it into smaller pieces, more specific, immediate, and emotionally connected to their experiences rather than to their identity. We talk a lot about their feelings of hurt and sadness, and explore and deepen their understanding about their sense of feeling unloved, or their sense of inadequacy, or their feelings of rejection and disapproval, etc. I try to underpin the depression in very specific and emotionally-connected understandings and expressions. Rarely do I talk to them about their depression explicitly while we are trying to understand, validate, and generate hope in specific areas of their pain. I have found it more helpful to spend sessions talking about how to generate hope for themselves over a sense of loss, a sense of powerlessness, a sense of disappointment, etc., rather than to keep talking about depression and what to do to help lessen it. The realization is that in the process of fostering hope by focusing on and discussing the different kinds of pain, we are also de-amplifying and de-escalating the depression. It is impossible to get to the bottom of depression and avoid the specific pain, since avoiding the pain is what clients have been trying to do through the eating disorder.

It is important to note here that there certainly can be, and usually is, biochemistry involved in the quality, intensity, and type of depression they are experiencing, and that careful evaluation and utilization of antidepressant medications is strongly encouraged as an active part of the treatment. It is also important to remember that clients with severe eating disorders often resist the notion of medication or sabotage use of the medication as an attempt to control their body and weight, and to foster a sense of control. It is important to be very attentive and regularly follow up on taking medication and continue to help them in the positive interpretation of the use of medication. Too often, medicine represents weakness and becomes evidence to again engage in self-hatred rather than being viewed as one more piece of the puzzle that will help generate hope in their recovery. It is my experience that clients often respond to and benefit from medication if we can reframe the medicine as a hopeful part of their healing and their recovery from both the depression and the eating disorder.

When dealing with eating disorders it is also important to continue to evaluate and recognize the impact of malnourishment on clients’ ability to process and/or modify the way they process information about themselves and about their lives. It is important to stabilize the eating disorder as a primary intervention and to emphasize renourishment before there will be a lot of success in treating the depression. Renourishing the brain and body is an important early framework for fostering hope.